Let’s start with the Introduction to Robotics, Robotics is an area where a number of scientific fields meet, and this fact already is a source of attraction for the involved scientists, for users, and the public. Expectations run high and in diverse directions. The word “robot” itself comes from literature and was created in the twenties by Czech poet, Karel Capek, in one of his plays, a play that ended tragically. With it came automation in the manufacturing industry, economic issues, and social concern about human labor replaced by machines. The versatility of these robot machines has been increasing, largely due to their continuously increasing ability of information processing. skeptical views, seeing robotics as one of the most powerful technologies of the 21st century.
In other words, “Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition.“
Trends and expected benefits of Robotics
The leading role of robotics is based on its inherent technology potential and, in particular, its relations to areas beyond technology. In comparison, the direct economic impact of robotics appears to be rather small. As robotics is a multidisciplinary area, expectations are very diverse as well. Subsequently, some trends and potential benefits will be outlined for different areas.
- Biology and neuroscience
- Man-machine relations
a) Communication and emotional behavior
b) Allocation of work and authority
Mode Of Operation Authority
- Manually, Automatically Supported
- Manually, automatically limited
- Automatically, manually limited
- Automatically, manually authorized
- Alarm- system
- Anti- blocking- system
- Expert- system
What is Robot?
A robot is a freely and re-programmable, multinational manipulator with at least three independent axes, for moving materials, parts, tools, or special devices on the program, variable trajectories in order to fulfill a multitude of various tasks. This definition was practically adopted by the international ISO-Standard.
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Robots are sensorimotoric machines for the extension of human mobility. They consist of Mechatronic components, sensors, and computer-based control functions. The complexity of a robot differs clearly from other machines by the larger number of degrees-of-freedom and the variety and the scope of its behaviors.
Legal and ethical aspects and challenges
Beyond the technical, ergonomic and socio-economic aspects, basic questions as to the role of machines in human life, leading to legal and ethical issues, have come up.
When robots become more and more part of daily life, legal questions of their interactions with humans and their consequences have to be addressed.
Asimov’s three laws run as follows:
- A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
- A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
- A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
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Intelligent robots will offer novel changes in various ways and for different areas. The subsequent selection of applications gives some comments on the chances offered: – Robots for the extension of the human work range are being used in areas such as space, underwater, and the micro- and nano- world.